The name actually occurs in the early romance King Horn, of some kingdom reached by ship. Translate by some similar invention containing West- or its equivalent. See Folde. Westmarch in the Shire. March means 'borderland'. West Marches in Rohan. This is given in Common Speech form and may be translated as 'the West ern Borderlands': in Rohan the land bordering the Isen. But it is in archaic form, wang being an old word for 'field, flat area'.
Wetwang is an actual place-name in Yorkshire. Both elements should be translated. Wang did not survive in Dutch, or in German except in place-names or dialect. German Wange, Dutch wang 'cheek' is a different but related word. Whitfurrows in the Shire. Translate by sense, whit- being the usual shortening of white in personal names Whitlock and local names Whitley.
Compare Whitfoot. Similarly Whitwell in the Shire an actual English place-name.
The reference in English place-names is usually to the colour of the soil. An invention not actually found in English , based on wilderness originally meaning country of wild creatures, not inhabited by Men , but with a side-reference to the verbs wilder 'wander astray' and bewilder. It is supposed to be the Common Speech name of Rhovanion on the map, not in the text , the lands east of the Misty Mountains including Mirkwood as far as the River Running.
River-name in the Old Forest, intended to be in the language of the Shire.
It was a winding river bordered by willows withies. Withy- is not uncommon in English place-names, but - windle does not actually occur Withywindle was modelled on withywind, a name of the convolvulus or bindweed. An invention of suitable elements in the language of translation would be desirable. I do not understand the Swedish version Vittespring.
Words related to withy are found in the Scandinavian languages; related also is German Weide. Elder Days. This is naturally taken by English readers to mean 'older' that is, former , but with an archaic flavour, since this original form of the comparative is now only applied to persons, or used as a noun in Elders seniors. In inventing the expression I intended this, as well as association with the poetic word eld 'old age, antiquity'. I have since recently come across the expression in early English be eldern dawes 'in the days of our forefathers, long ago'.
This, meaning 'Days of the Seniors', might help in devising a translation that is not just the equivalent of 'the older days'. The similarity to Eldar, plural of Elda 'Elf', is accidental and unintentional. Elda is the Quenya form of the Grey-elven word edhel.
See Elder Kindred. With regard to this old adjectival form, see Elven-smiths. The element -mind has the sense 'memory'; the name thus resembles 'forget-me-not', but a quite different kind of flower is intended: an imagined variety of anemone, growing in turf like Anemone pulsatilla, the pasque-flower, but smaller and white like the wood anemone.
The Swedish and Dutch versions both omit the element -mind, and so produce names equivalent to 'everlasting flower', which is not the point.
Though the plant bloomed at all seasons, its flowers were not 'immortelles'. The Swedish has evighetsblommor, the Dutch Immerdaar. Translate the second element -stone. All the month-names in the Shire Calendar are worn-down forms of the Old English names. Since all Hobbit month-names are supposed not to be Common Speech, but conservative survivals from their former language before migration, it would be best to keep Lithe unaltered—as would be necessary with the other calendar names in any translation of the Appendices.
The Dutch version keeps Lithe. The word was peculiar to English and no related calendar word is found elsewhere. The Swedish version rewrites the passage I 19 '.
This, besides omitting the 'Free Fair' and misrendering the 'White Downs' as the 'chalk cliffs', misrepresents the passage and the customs plainly alluded to. It was not a night festival or 'wake', but a day-celebration marked by a 'Free Fair' Dutch version Vrije Markt , so called because anyone who wished could set up a booth without charge. The translator has assimilated the passage to the Scandinavian summer-solstice festival, christianised in name by association with St.
But the affair was not a Midsummer Night's Dream!
See Yule. Longbottom Leaf.
See Longbottom, under Place-names. The meaning is defined in I 14 as 'anything that Hobbits had no immediate use for, but were unwilling to throw away'. Old Toby. A variety of tobacco, named after Tobold Hornblower. Use whatever equivalent of Toby is used for the personal name I Old Winyards. A wine—but of course in fact a place-name, meaning 'the Old Vineyards'. Winyard is actually preserved as a place-name in England, descending from Old English before the assimilation to French and Latin vin-.
This cannot, I think, be imitated, and one must remain content with the word for 'vineyard' in the language of translation, as weingarten, vingaard, and so on. The Dutch version has Oude Wijngaarden.
A Rohan name for the effigies of men of a vanished race. Not in the Index, but it occurs in II as a technical name for a rope-maker's yard; see Tighfield. A word peculiar to hobbits not Common Speech , meaning 'burrow'; leave unchanged. It is a form that the Old English word smygel 'burrow' might have had, if it had survived.
An invention; render it by a similar one suitable to the language of translation, implying a vigorous ring-dance in which dancers often leaped up. Tale in Tale of Years means 'counting', 'reckoning'. The midwinter counterpart of Lithe. The midwinter festival was not an Elvish custom, and so would not have been celebrated in Rivendell. The fellowship, however, left on December 25, which had then no significance, since the Yule, or its equivalent, was then the last day of the year and the first of the next year. But December 25 setting out and March 25 accomplishment of the quest were intentionally chosen by me.
In translation, Yule should like Lithe be treated as an alien word not generally current in the Common Speech. It should therefore be retained, though with a spelling suitable to the language of translation: so for example in Danish or German spelt Jule. Yule is found in modern English mostly as a literary archaism , but this is an accident, and cannot be taken to imply that a similar or related word was also found in the Common Speech at that time: the hobbit calendar differed throughout from the official Common Speech calendars.
It may, however, be supposed that a form of the same word had been used by the Northmen who came to form a large part of the population of Gondor III , and was later in use in Rohan, so that some word like Yule was well known in Gondor as a 'northern name' for the midwinter festival; somewhat like the appearance in modern German of Jul as a loan from the North?