Back Matter Pages Even those who were in no way Marxists, and those who were undogmatic in their Marxisms, now confront a new world. All the more harsh is it for those who worked within the framework imposed upon professional philosophy by the official ideology.
Here in this book, we are concerned with some 31 colleagues from the late German Democratic Republic, representative in their scholarship of the achievements of a curiously creative while dismayingly repressive period. The literature published in the GDR was blossoming, certainly in the final decade, but it developed within a totalitarian regime where personal careers either advanced or faltered through the private protection or denunciation of mentors.
We will never know how many good minds did not enter the field of philosophy in the first place due to their prudent judgments that there was a virtual requirement that the candidate join the Socialist Unity i.
Communist Party. Among those who started careers and were sidetracked, the record is now beginning to be revealed; and for the rest, the price of 'doing philosophy' was mostly silence in the face of harassments the likes of which make academic politics in the West seem child's play. Berlin Charles Darwin Germany biology natural philosophy quantum mechanics theory of science.
Werk der Vernunft Das geistige Tierreich (German Edition) eBook: Josef Mußmann: catchtebonaper.tk: Kindle Store. Sun tzu and naval strategy. Riding solo my journey through love and madness. Werk der vernunft das geistige tierreich german edition. When they severed earth .
Editors and affiliations. Der Geist ist das sittliche Leben eines Volks , insofern er die unmittelbare Wahrheit ist ; das Individuum, das eine Welt ist. Es gibt nun in dem einen Gesetze, wie in dem andern, auch Unterschiede und Stufen. Das Gemeinwesen , das obere und offenbar an der Sonne geltende Gesetz, hat seine wirkliche Lebendigkeit in der Regierung , als worin es Individuum ist. Sie ist der in sich reflektierte wirkliche Geist, das einfache Selbst der ganzen sittlichen Substanz.
Der Geist der allgemeinen Zusammenkunft ist die Einfachheit und das negative Wesen dieser sich isolierenden Systeme. Sie sind dasselbe Blut, das aber in ihnen in seine Ruhe und Gleichgewicht gekommen ist. Der Unterschied der Geschlechter und ihres sittlichen Inhalts bleibt jedoch in der Einheit der Substanz, und seine Bewegung ist eben das bleibende Werden derselben.
It is a well-known story that the question whether Africans think like Europeans or not was swept off the table by the powerful interests of the slave traders and the trading companies. Nietzsche gives us a point of departure for answering this question by viewing pain as a form of perception. Sie ist dies, und ihr Sein ist nicht nur ein Zeichen, sondern die Sache selbst. Cosmic justice in breaking bad: can sociopaths and antiheroes lead meaningful lives? Nicht dies, wie sie unmittelbar an sich selbst das Gleiche oder Ungleiche , d.
Each nation has its own problems, and there is no need to look to history to discover the correct course. In this respect, there is nothing so insipid as the constant appeals to Greek and Roman precedents we hear so often, as for example during the French Revolution. Nothing could be more different than the character of those nations and that of our times.
Johannes von Muller, in his General History 37 and his History of the Swiss Confederation , had moral aims of this sort in mind, and laid down appropriate doctrines for the instruction of princes, governments, and nations, particularly for the Swiss.
He then proceeded to pepper his narrative at will with his sayings; but they can only come to life when they are applied to a concrete instance. His thoughts are very superficial; he thus becomes tedious, and this portion of his work certainly cannot be classed as his greatest achievement. Reflections must be concrete. Accordingly, one reflective history gives way to another; each writer has the same materials before him, each believes himself capable of arranging them and of fashioning a work out of them, and each will infuse his own spirit into them in the guise of the spirit of the age he depicts.
This has produced a general reaction against such reflective histories, and readers have often turned back to precise descriptions which look at an event from every possible angle. These are certainly not without value, but they usually consist only of raw materials.
We Germans are content with this; but the French show particular ingenuity in creating an imaginary present and in relating the past to the present situation. The third kind of reflective history is critical history; it deserves to be mentioned since it is the principal method employed at present by historians in Germany. It does not constitute history as such, but rather the history of history; it evaluates historical narratives and examines their authenticity and credibility.
Its distinguishing characteristic and intention are to be found not so much in the subjects it deals with, but rather in the acuteness with which the writer wrests new information from the narratives he examines. He scrutinises every circumstance to test the credibility of the whole. The French have done much thorough and discriminating work in this field. They have not claimed, however, that this critical procedure is itself a form of history, but have presented their judgements in the form of critical treatises.
dvd36.nawapolnawapol.com/51-wo-sie.php It too is a method of bringing a present into the past, 41 namely by substituting subjective fancies for historical data - fancies which are considered the more excellent the bolder they are, that is, the less they have to substantiate them, the scantier the details on which they are based, and the more widely they diverge from the best established facts of history. The last kind of reflective history is specialised history. It can readily be recognised by its fragmentary and particular character, for it selects a single general perspective for instance, the history of art, of law, or of religion from the wider context, i.
It is admittedly abstract, but since its perspectives are general, it also provides a point of transition to the philosophical history of the world. Such general perspectives include the history of art, of religion, of learning, constitutions, law, property relations, and navigation.
The culture of today is such that this variety of history has received more attention and become more highly developed than before. Constitutional history is already more closely related to universal history, for it has no sense or significance unless it is based on a survey of the state as a whole.
Such branches of national activity are directly related to the history of the nation as a whole, and everything depends on whether this wider context is brought fully to light, or merely glossed over in favour of external relationships. In the latter event, the activities in question appear as purely contingent national peculiarities. But it must be emphasised that, if reflective history has reached the stage of adopting general perspectives, and if these perspectives are valid ones, such activities appear not just as an external thread, a superficial sequence, but as the inward guiding spirit of the events and deeds themselves.
The general perspective of philosophical world history is not abstractly general, but concrete and absolutely present; for it is the spirit which is eternally present to itself and for which there is no past. To gain an understanding of it and its guiding influence is the aim of the present investigation. As to what is meant by history or world history, I need say nothing; the common conception of it is adequate , and we are more or less agreed on what it is.
But what may strike you about the title of these lectures and call for a word of elucidation, or rather of justification , is that we are here con- cerned with a philosophy of world history, and are about to consider history from a philosophical point of view. But the philosophy of history is nothing more than the application of thought to history; and thinking is something we cannot stop doing. For man is a thinking being, and it is this which distinguishes him from the animals.
All that is truly human , as distinct from animal - feeling, know- ledge , and cognition - contains an element of thought, and this applies to all historical studies. But to appeal in this way to the participation of thought in all human activities may seem inadequate, for it could be argued that thought is subordinate to being, to the data of reality, and is based upon and determined by the latter.
Philosophy, on the other hand, is credited with independent thoughts produced by pure speculation , without reference to actuality; speculation , it might further be contended, approaches history as something to be manipulated , and does not leave it as it is, but forces it to conform to its preconceived notions and constructs a history a priori.
History, however, is concerned with what actually happened. Its methods would therefore seem completely at variance with the essentially self-determining activity of conceptual thought. It is, of course, possible to present events in such a way that we can imagine they are taking place directly before our eyes.
Even then, however, the links between the events must be taken into account; in other words, our procedure must be pragmatic, for we have to discover the causes and reasons behind the events. Nevertheless, in a procedure of this kind, the events will always remain basic, and the activity of the concept will be limited to the formal and general aspects of the factual material, i. It is generally accepted that logical thinking is required for all such deductions from history; their justification, however, must come from the world of ex- perience.
But what philosophy understands by conceptual thinking is something quite different; in this case, comprehension is the activity of the concept itself, and not a conflict between a material and a form of separate origin. An alliance of disparates such as is found in pragmatic history is not sufficient for the purposes of conceptual thinking as practised in philosophy; for the latter derives its content and material essentially from within itself.
In this respect, therefore, despite the alleged links between the two, the original dichotomy remains: the historical event stands opposed to the independent concept. But [even if we disregard philosophy,] the same relationship emerges in the study of history itself as soon as we look at it from a higher vantage point. For on the one hand, we have in history ingredients and higher determinants which are remote from the conceptual world - i.
On the other hand, we set up against this the idea of a higher necessity, an eternal justice and love, the absolute and ultimate end which is truth in and for itself. In contrast to natural being, this second, opposite pole is based on abstract elements, on the freedom and necessity of the concept. This opposition contains many interesting features; it comes to our notice once again in the Idea of world history. Our present aim is to show how it is resolved in and for itself in the world-historical process. The sole end of history is to comprehend clearly what is and what has been , the events and deeds of the past.
It gains in veracity the more strictly it confines itself to what is given , and - although this is not so immediately evident , but in fact requires many kinds of investigations in which thought also plays a part - the more exclusively it seeks to discover what actually hap- pened. This aim seems to contradict the function of philosophy; and it is this contradiction , and the accusation that philosophy imports its own ideas into history and manipulates it accordingly , that I wish to discuss in the Introduc- tion to these lectures.